What is the Cyclotron ?
In technology, a cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator. In physics, cyclotron frequency is the frequency of a charged particle moving perpendicularly to the direction of a uniform magnetic field, i.e. a magnetic field of constant magnitude and direction. Since that motion is always circular, the cyclotron frequency is well defined
How the cyclotron works
Diagram of cyclotron operation from Lawrence's 1934 patent.
Beam of electrons moving in a circle. Lighting is caused by excitation of gas atoms in a bulb.The electrodes shown at the right would be in the vacuum chamber, which is flat, in a narrow gap between the two poles of a large magnet.
In the cyclotron, a high-frequency alternating voltage applied across the "D" electrodes (also called "dees") alternately attracts and repels charged particles. The particles, injected near the center of the magnetic field, accelerate only when passing through the gap between the electrodes. The perpendicular magnetic fi ...more
The particles to be accelerated are formed near the centre of the device in the gap, where the electric field propels them into one of the dees. There the magnetic field guides them in a semicircular path. By the time they return to the gap, the electric field has reversed, so they are accelerated into the other dee. Although the speed of the particles and the radius of their orbit increase each time they cross the gap, as long as the mass of the particles a ...more