I think you are asking about car insurance. Am I right?
If you claim insurance for small amount you lose benefit of no claim bonus at the time of renewal next year. N claim at the peak can be as high as 65% of premium.
Secondly, on claiming any damage, you not only lose NCB but the NCB for all years after that will be reduced i.e. again it starts as if it's a new policy and gradually reaches that percentage where you might have already reached while claiming insurance.
Third, now car insurance is detarriffed i.e. for renewal each year the insurer will check you claim record. Higher the claim premium ratio, higher will be the quote for premium next year.
Therefore, while deciding to claim insurance, check all the above and compute cost benefit before lodging claim.
I hope it answers your question!