The first complete census of population was, however, conducted in 1881,
The first census after Independence was taken in 1951. The report of 1951 census by the Census Commissioner for India was a complete departure from the pattern of previous census reports. This report attempted to interpret the past changes in the size and structure of India's population and to point out their implications for the level of living of the population. The report also made a plea for a reduction in the birth rate of the country. The 1951 census also attempted for the first time in the history of Indian census to make an assessment of the accuracy of the census count by a re-check in the field.
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The Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) undertook a countrywide Economic Census, for the first time in 1977 to provide a better frame for conducting follow-up surveys for collection of detailed information particularly from unorganized establishments. The basic information, relating to the distribution of non-agricultural establishments by activity, type of ownership, rural/urban break up and by employment size needed for preparation of a frame for conducting detailed surveys was collected in the Economic Census. The second and third Economic Censuses were conducted in 1980 and 1990 along with house listing operation of 1981 and 1991 Population Censuses respectively.