The Vedas are the oldest religious texts in Hinduism. The word Veda means knowledge. It is believed that the Vedas were orally revealed by Brahma to certain sages, who heard them and passed them down in an oral tradition. They were not written down; in fact this was prohibited. Because of this earliest oral tradition continuing even now when the Vedas are available in the written form, the Vedas are still known to be Sruti or shruti - ' that which is heard '.
The Vedas are mainly comprised of of hymns or mantras written in the Sanskrit language. They cover various subjects, from nature to everyday life and behaviour, and form the basis of all other religious writings. The books are so special that they are often kept in glass cases.
The four Vedas are:
Rg-Veda (Rigveda) - The oldest and holiest Veda.
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Veda means knowledge, and the Vedas are said to come from Lord Krishna. The Vedas contain knowledge about mundane necessities as well as spirituality essential for Hinduism and its predecessor, Brahmanism. The texts of the Vedas are called Samhitas, and the Vedic prayers are known as Mantras. The Rgveda (Rig Veda), Samaveda, the Yajurveda, and the Atharvaveda are the four books of the Vedas, in chronological order. The Rgveda is thought to have been written, in Sanskrit (as are the others), between 1200 B.C. and 800 or 1500 and 1200, in the Punjab. In contrast: Determining the Age of Saraswat Community, from Archaeology Daily News, says Vedic scholar Dr. NS Rajaram suggests "Such sites [as Kunal and others along the Sarasvati River] are likely to date to 3500 BCE or earlier.