How many Arabic loanwords are there in English?
Of course, language development is not that simple. Not all the words that have entered English via Arabic originate from that language. Linguistically speaking, the Arabs borrowed as freely as they lent and their language included words originating from Spanish, Latin, Greek, Persian, Hebrew and many others. Many of the words start with the Arabic definite article al, which also appears in silent form without the l in words such as admiral. Heres a list of some of the common words that the Arabic language has bequeathed to English.
alchemy via Greek
Loanwords listed in alphabetical order
amr, commander. Amr al-bihr = "commander of the seas" was a title in use in Arabic Sicily, and was continued by the Normans in Sicily in a Latinized form, and then adopted successively by medieval Genoese and French. Modern French is "amiral". An English form under King Edward III (14th century) was "Amyrel of the Se". Insertion of the 'd' was doubtless influenced by allusion to common Latin "admire". 
al-ba | at-tba, "the brick". The Arabic dictionary of Al-Jawhari dated about year 1000 made the comment that the Arabic word came from the Coptic language. The first record of the word in a Western language is in 12th century Spanish. Other cases of Arabic 't' becoming medieval Spanish 'd' include es:Badana and es:Badea. The word entered English from Mexico in the 18th and 19th centuries. 
al-ghas, literally "the diver", presumably a cormorant or oth ...more
alchemy via Greek
alcohol the quintessence of earthly substances, originally from alchemy
algebra restoration of missing parts, later used in a 9th century mathematical book written by a Persian scientist whose name gave us algorithm