First Muslims were semi civilized Bedouin tribes who were constantly fighting against each other. Across the borders of Arabia, lay two great powers Zoroastrian Persians and Christian Romans. The prophet died in 632 AD. Immediately after His death, half clad Bedouins, without any knowledge of metallurgy (hence without proper arms), without knowledge of modern warfare and without any experience of administration swept over all the lands from Spain to North Africa to West Asia to Sind. Soon thereafter, Islam established a great civilization. How this was possible?
The basic reason was Purity of faith and Justice to the conquered People ,One Example here for your consideration
Every year, at a certain month, the Zakat money is collected from all over the Islamic Empire. This money is partitioned and spent over certain populace who are in the most need for it, as specifically mentioned in the Holy Quran.
Generally, the age of Khalifa Omar Ibn Abd Al-Aziz is known to be the most economically flourishing ages among all the Islamic history, but in a specific year the Zakat money was collected, massive amounts of Zakat money, more than any other year. So Omar Ibn Abd El Aziz ordered Spend it over the fields of Zakat, give it to the poor and the needy.
So the ones responsible for spending the zakat went, and searched for those who should receive the money. The Islamic Empire was so enormous limiting all over the world, so, they spent here, and spent there, they gave more and more needy people, and then they come back and still the majorit ...more
But then most great powers at the time operated using large sweeping formations. So u could just have mobile groups attack from port side first, the enemy would think the attack is coming from port, and would march their entire formation to face port. Just as this is happening, an attack from the starboard side would follow while the large formation is still getting adjusted to facing port. Large formations would be harassed in multiple directions using this tactic...and in time, the enemy would be confused, worn out w/o a clear set of instructions on what to do.
THEN, all the small mobile formations form into a battle group & engage.....this tactic was highly effective.
If Arabs didn't have metal working, they had horses, whereas mo ...more