At the time of Independence, India was primarily under two administrations: The Government of India directly run by the British Crown; and the princely States, who owed allegiance to the Crown but administered their own territories. The Accession of Jammu & Kashmir to India was made in accordance with The India Independence Act, 1947. Under this Act none of the princely States was permitted to declare independence [Sec II (3)]. They could opt for either India or Pakistan with the executive qualifying that geographical contiguity to either State and the predominant religion of the region would govern this option. The Nizam of Hyderabad and Nawab of Khairpur were therefore required to accede to India and Pakistan respectively. The Hindu Maharajah (ruler) of J&K in fact temporized on accession in the hope that he might win independence.
A tribal invasion from Pakistan forced him to bow to the will of the then predominant political party with a primarily local Muslim leadership and fol